How To Etch A 2-Layer Copper Printed Circuit Board Using The UV Etching Method?

The basic concept of the UV etching method in creating a printed circuit board is to use ultraviolet light to soften and eliminate a substrate and use the retained substrate to shield the copper board from an acid bath.

In creating a two-layer copper circuit board, you need the following materials:

Copper (coated with positive UV resist substrate), Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) to dissolve the substrate coating, UV lamp, UV translucent plastic to weight down the PC during exposure, transparency sheets, and a small drill bit (.031).

In designing the printed circuit board, it is crucial to take note that vias is quite difficult to deal with, so it will be to your advantage if you try to minimize the use of it to your layout. Once you are done with the layout, you need to set up the PCB software so that it will only print the things you want in the copper board.

In preparing your board, you need to mark the parts where you will be cutting using a pair of calipers that are quite handy in etching precision marks in the protective sheet. Then, you need to cut the printed circuit board to its appropriate size. You can use tinsnips but a dremel tool will work fine.Printed circuit board

It is crucial to mirror the top layer because you need the actual PCB to be as close as the diagram as possible. The diagram should be clear when showing which side goes towards the printed circuit board because it will have a matte finish.

Many technicians are a bit scared of creating 2-layer printed circuit boards because these are quite difficult to line up the two layers. However, this is not actually that hard particularly if the board is small. All you need to do is to use a drill press to align the reference holes. Remember that the farther they are apart from each other, the easier it is to avoid misalignments in the rotation.

The next phase is regarded as a time-consuming step –

First, you need to be extra careful in removing the protective sheet of one side of the board. It is recommended to do this at night or at least in a room because sunlight is a good source of UV light, and it can result to undesirable effects.

Then, align the artwork sheet with the circuit board and use a scotch tape to secure it. Place it under a transparent sheet and under a UV light for at least 15 minutes. If you wait a bit less, there will surely be substrate on the board. If you wait a bit more, you might end up washing off all the substrate during the acid bath.
circuit-boardDeveloping the printed circuit board is regarded as the coolest part of the whole process. You need to prepare a solution first to develop the PCB. You can use a clog remover mixed with water. However, there is always the possibility of overdoing it using a developer concentration. You can have the developer wash away all the etch-resistant substrate because of high concentration. Hence, be always sure to take note of the concentration that you are using so you can make the necessary adjustments.

Wear a pair of rubber gloves and immerse the circuit board in the developer and rub it with a foam sponge. Be very careful in this process because some clog remover solutions can melt away certain types of foams. Meanwhile, be sure to follow the etching process, which may take at least three to five hours.

After etching the circuit board, the next thing to do is to drill all the holes. As mentioned above, it is best to use a 0.31” drill bit alongside a tabletop drill press. This part is quite easy as the small copper vias can guide your drill into the holes.

Portable Storage Container Buying Tips: 5 Basic Factors To Consider

In the past, it was rare to find a home or an office that uses a portable storage container for the safekeeping and transport of merchandise, furniture, and other belongings. Nowadays, however, the portable container manufacturing industry has boomed, and with it, the number of people relying on these containers for personal and commercial use.

It can be pretty confusing, especially for someone who isn’t an expert in storage containers, to decide on the right container to purchase or rent. However, this can be made easier by simply considering five important factors.

1. Available Space on Property

Before you go ahead and start searching for the most suitable container for you, the first question you have to ask yourself is: “Do I have enough space at home/in the office for the portable storage container?” Generally, people prefer to have the container delivered to their homes or offices, where there is a designated spot for the container to be placed. If you intend to use the container for an office or a store and you have no extra space for the container, you may simply choose a spot in the parking area. If the container is for your home, you can keep it in the garage if it fits, or in the backyard.

Storage Container

However, if you really can’t find any space on your property that is large enough to accommodate the container, most companies will offer for you to leave your container in their storage yards. This is a practical solution as you can simply go to the storage yard in case there are items you need from the container, or conveniently have your items delivered by the company to your office or home.

2. Dimensions of Container

When it comes to purchasing a portable storage container, size does matter. The bigger the dimensions, the more space you have, and the more items you can store in the container. Naturally, containers with larger dimensions also cost more. Because of this, it is best to carefully consider first the dimension, weight, and cubic capacity of the container that you need. There are some things that have to be factored when deciding on these: where you intend to place it, what you intend to use it for (storage, safekeeping, or as a make-shift room), and the things that you plan to store in it.

3. Container Type

Portable Storage ContainerAfter you have decided on the above factors, the next thing you have to consider is the type of container that you have to get. Container types are based on the material that the container is composed of. Plastic, aluminum, and steel containers are some of the more common types that you can choose from. The amount of merchandise, type of things you plan to store, and the area in which the container will be placed in will determine the type of container that suits your requirements.

4.Safety Features

Whether you are to use the portable storage container for the safekeeping of your merchandise and personal belongings, or if you plan to use the container as a makeshift office or room, it is very important to carefully look into the safety features that a container is equipped with. The most basic of these are fire-resistance, water-resistance, and rust-resistance. It is better to spend a little more in making sure that a container has all these basic safety features rather than end up with regret when you lose a lot due to damage.

5. Cost

Finally, you also must consider the price being offered for the purchase or rental of a portable container. Regardless of the quality, the company must be able to offer a competitive price. Make sure that you compare prices before you make a final decision so that you can be certain that you are getting the best deal possible.
Simply use this as a guide and you can easily narrow down you search for the best portable storage container for all your personal and entrepreneurial needs.

How can Help your Organization?


The existence of challenge coins proves that these are not just tangible things that will wear away after some time. These types of coin don’t just exist to be displayed on the wall or anywhere else, but its real importance resides in the intangible things they represent. has been making custom coins for years. We’ve seen how our coins are used to make people feel important, acknowledge heroism, and symbolize exclusive membership. For that, we feel honoured to see that our efforts in making customized coins are worth it.

The coins made by are commonly used in different political and societal sectors. We’ve been making coins for corporations, military, fire department and police department. In fact, one of our most prominent customers is the NASA.

Importance of Challenge Coins
As Tokens of Acknowledgment

Giving challenge coins to the deserving members of your organization is a way to say, “Thank you” or “You did a good job” formally. One may say that you can just say those words directly to deserving members. However, your members may feel more appreciated if they have something that they can keep for a long time.

Challenge Coin

Challenge coins are there to serve as memorabilia and proofs that your deserving members have done a great job. These are gifts that you can give to your members so they have something that they can be proud of and show to their children and the next generation.

In fact, custom challenge coins are used even by prominent politicians and organizations to show appreciation. This is proven by history.

Even during the Roman Era, custom coins were already used as tokens of appreciation for the soldiers who were fighting in battle. Once the soldiers returned home, they would be given their day’s salary and customized coins that bear their troop’s insignia.
The Roman soldiers chose not to spend these customized coins. Instead, they chose to keep them as souvenirs.

Even during the modern times, challenge coins are still used to symbolize appreciation. In 2009, President Barrack Obama placed challenge coins on the memorials of the soldiers who were killed in the Fort Hood Shooting.

As Proof of Membership or Identity

One of the reasons why different organizations order custom coins from Challengecoins4less is to give a sense of exclusive membership to their members.

There were several stories throughout the history that tell how the challenge coins were used to prove one’s identity. One of the most popular story happened during the World War I
Challenge CoinsDuring the World War I, there were young volunteers from America who went to Germany to fight the war. One of them was a young pilot who received a custom coin from a wealthy lieutenant. This coin had a unique insignia, which symbolized the troop’s alliance. The young pilot kept this coin inside a pouch tied around his neck.

He was captured by the Germans not long after he received the coin. His personal belongings and everything that could prove his identity were stripped off from him to prevent him from escaping. However, this didn’t stop the young pilot from escaping when the bombardment arose.

The young pilot pretended to be a civilian until he reached the French outpost. During that time, there were spies who dressed up like civilians, and the French mistook him as one of those spies. He was about to be executed when he was unable to produce anything that can prove his identity. He then thought of the coin inside the pouch around his neck, and showed it to them. The French recognized the insignia and postponed the execution until he was able to verify his identity. Because of this, instead of executing him, the French gave him a bottle wine.

We know that every member of your organization is important to you. We know that you take time to appreciate the efforts of your members, because we know that some of them are willing to risk their life for the people and for the country. For this reason, the Challengecoins4less vows to keep creating challenge coins for those who deserve them.

The Challengecoins4less are known to create high quality coins. For this reason, we can assure you that our coins will last for several years, and the recipients can frame them in their walls to last for a long time. is the right place for making custom challenge coins. For more details you can contact to us and also visit our website.

Tips on Converting Your Design to Iron-on Patches


It is important to remember that there are elements in a design that can be lost when converting to embroidery. This is the reason why the design itself should be created with the thought of translating it into embroidery. This can save you from expecting that the iron on patches will look exactly the same as the company logo or digital design that you might have prepared, and finding out that it didn’t.

Each design must first be digitalized for it to be turned to stitches. After you have submitted your designed graphic or your written description to us, we will create a digitalized sample of it. This is a must to be able to create a good setup before we start manufacturing your iron on patches. You do not have to worry if you do not know how to create a digital image since we can easily do it for you. If you opt to do this by yourself, you have to know that you could encounter trouble spots on this. Today, we will teach you how to do this in order to get the best look of the design that you have in mind.

Create a Large, High Quality Graphic

The image must always be at an appropriate size for the embroidering. If the images are smaller than the actual size that the patches should have, they will pixelate by the time you attempt to enlarge them. Any small details you have can disappear. The edges of the design can also be jagged randomly or become squared. This can cost more time since the digitizer will need to fill in those missing details. Provide each detail you have in mind whether through creating your own artwork, digital image or submitting a written description. This way, you can be certain that the design will be embroidered just the way you want it to be. If you opt to create your own graphic image, you have to be certain that it has the highest resolution possible.


Minimize Light-Colored and Fine Lines

There are times when the outlines or fine lines that have light colors such as yellow and white would not look the way you envisioned them to be. You have to keep in mind that embroidery is different than a digitalized image. You have to think in terms of stitches. Be aware that the fine lines on embroidery are created through a series of thin stitches. These stitches can leave negative spaces and this can cause them to look like dots instead of a fine line. Dark colors are more preferable on these cases. They can look more attractive and can “show up” on embroideries compared to light colors.

Avoid Fading Effects

Gradients cannot look as good as what you can see on digital images when applied on embroideries. They can be done by overlapping threads of different colors but it will not be as good as the digitalized ones and you can jeopardize the clarity of your designs.  You can ensure a clear and vibrant-looking design by turning these fade effects into solid colors.


Follow the Minimum Size of Characters

It is quite hard to read small characters on iron on patches. This is the reason why the letterings you might be looking to include in your patches should be at least ¼ inch. There are cases when smaller characters can be made but it requires the use of a finer thread which is more costly and fabrics such as nylons. We highly advise that you do not limit your own choices through this though.

The last and perhaps one of the most important things you should do is to get your work optimized by a trusted designer. We have great artists that can optimize your design well. We understand that you want your iron on patches to look the best they can be which is why we see to it that our optimized versions and stitched samples will actually look just the way you want them to. We will only start manufacturing your orders by the time you approve the samples. This is to be certain that your patches will only be created according to your liking. Our best digitizers are waiting to work with you.

The Road To Motivational-Speaker-Success

We at Motivational-Speaker-Success have often been asked, ‘how do you go about ensuring the success of your speakers?’

There really is not tried and true formula for motivation and success, only persistent hard work and sticking with the guidelines provided below:

a. Have a valuable, meaningful, and life changing message to share with your audience. The sort of information that can turn lives around for the better.

b. Write and create a one hour long presentation that speaks about the message. Write it in a way that is sure to connect to the core of the audience. The presentation should make the audience laugh while being so substantive that it is almost deserving of a literary award.


c. Gather a group of trusted professionals in a room to critique your presentation before delivering it to a paying audience. This is common practice at Motivational-Speaker-Success. Unless the people you trust have given the presentation the green light and it has passed with flying colors, DO NOT share it with the world yet. All great motivational speakers perfect their presentation first and then deliver their message to an audience.

d. Under no circumstance should you present a rough draft of your presentation to friends and family. Unless they are motivational speakers or professionals in the field of event management and public speaking they will not have the expertise to gauge the difference between a bad or great presentation. Present only to public speaking professionals.

e. Be generous with your material once it is perfected. Share it for free or at discounted rates to groups that are deserving of the material but cannot afford your regular rates. This way you are able to do pro bono work while test running the presentation to a real audience. A great way to fine tune the presentation, perfecting it for a much more discriminating audience.

Motivational Speaker

f. Document your talks and presentation if you want to achieve motivation and success. Hire a videographer with the ability to capture your talk using the right camera & lighting equipment. A great video of your presentation that is captured professionally is well lit and properly edited, can be a major marketing tool for future clients. Hiring a creative director, videographer and editor to manage your video productions at every event is an expensive investment but necessary if you are serious about becoming a success. All professional motivational speakers, including us at Motivational-Speaker-Success, document their work for marketing purposes.

g. Invest in a kick ass website. These days having a website where future clients can see videos, read write ups and published materials can guarantee more work than not having one. It is a must for all serious public speakers who are aiming for motivation and success.

h. Connect with your clients. The people who hire motivational speakers are the speakers’ bureaus, meeting planners, and the members of the National Speakers Association. Creating a database containing the relevant contact information of these people, getting in touch with them and setting up a meet & greet is the most important step at establishing your path towards success. They have to know who you are. Make sure to create a good impression because these are the people who will send you the jobs.

i. Know the competition and look for inspiration from them. Study the best motivational speakers by visiting their website and listening or watching them at work. Do not copy them. Understand what makes them great and incorporate it into your presentation. Aim to be better than the best.

j. Do the work because you want to make a positive contribution to the lives of people. Do not do it to get rich. Money is never the motivation of the best motivational speakers. Wealth is not the goal it is the result of hard work, of brilliant and creative work that is always people centered.


Becoming a successful motivational speaker is a commitment. You have to treat it as a business. You are the entrepreneur and the product is the material that you share with your audience. Like any business it requires a good measure of investment in time, energy, and financial resources. Whatever you do, unless you have the money to back up this venture for the long term, do not ever quit your day job, while in the process of pursuing your dream.

Ask any successful speaker at Motivational-Speaker-Success they got to where they are right now because they earned their place in the industry through years of toil. A person may have the innate talent to speak in front of a crowd but that will not go a long way unless the speaker is willing to go through the process of perfecting their craft.

What Are The Pros And Cons Of Hybrid Clubs?

Hybrid clubs are an amalgam of wood and iron in order to provide better features and benefits to golfers these days. However, it’s important to consider some important factors before buying a new hybrid club since there are plenty of options in the market today. But don’t worry because we are here to provide you with the best choices you can choose from so that you will get the perfect match for your golfing skills. In fact, Rockbottomgolf is your ultimate source of hybrid golf clubs with the right pricing. Please feel free to browse the site and find what you exactly want. We’ve provided the pros and cons so you are sure to make an informed buying decision.

With the features combined from fairway wood and iron, rest assured that you can level up your sports need with our hybrids.

Just be sure to understand the advantages and disadvantages of each hybrid so you won’t regret your final choice:

• Hybrid wood

This type of hybrid is used to substitute the wood from the corresponding number. Meaning, the 5-wood contain similar loft just like the regular 5-wood. But the key benefit is the easy accessibility of golf club while the face depth is relatively larger compared to iron. However, the only con about this hybrid is the shallower club-face which affects the ball flight and hit.

• Hybrid iron
Golf clubsThese hybrid clubs are excellent alternative to standard woods. In fact, the advantages as well as disadvantages of hybrid irons from normal irons overturn the pros and cons of the hybrid wood. The increased thickness helps make the golf club less appropriate to extremely thick rough clubs. Hence, the extra thickness affects control during the ball flight. Golfers are actually amazed by the new features when it comes to making the ball reach its sweet spot and get score. But of course there is still a disadvantage in using this hybrid. The extra manipulation over the golf ball may reduce the shot frequencies which aren’t hit clean.

Before you choose a hybrid club, make sure to keep some important reminders in mind. For instance, a golfer may opt to test the clubs first before he pays for it. You can actually determine the right club to use by just testing the features offered by the product. The negatives and the positives of each item will open your mind to the possibilities once you use it at play. However, consistency is the secret when finding the perfect match for your skills. If the golfer was able to stroke his hybrid wood through the same consistency with a standard wood, then the advantage here is the bag. As a player, you need to understand every minute detail in order to become a winner.

Quickly Finding the Best Go-To Golf Shop Online

So if you simply want to find an easy to use club, you can use the hybrid versions. They are simpler to hit and are usually able to produce better shots unlike long irons. With their increasing popularity among golfers across the globe, Rockbottomgolf is committed to provide the best accessories and clubs that every player can use. The face of hybrid clubs is somewhat similar to irons because they are also flat. This makes hitting the golf ball a lot easier in a square manner. In addition, longer distances between shots are improved by a hybrid unlike standard clubs offered in the market.
Golf equipmentThe wider sole and rounded head design in fact allows players to achieve low center of gravity towards the bottom and back of club-heads. You can even swing freely with the right speed because the weight and length is suitable to your body specifications. With low center of gravity, hybrid golf clubs easily get the golf ball in the air while achieving higher flight than irons. They also capitulate less roll due to the increased flight. As a result, the driving distance is also increased. And if you are curious when hybrids are used, most golfers decide to use these versions in order to replace long irons and combine all the features of iron and wood clubs.

The lowest number hybrid must be able to provide golfers with distance between 10 and 15 yards; this relatively shorter than the highest number fairway wood for better distance coverage. Once you use hybrids for your golf need, you will know how effective they are in hitting the ball even in thick greens. For more details about hybrid clubs, check out our site today.

When You Should Hire a Long Island Foreclosure Lawyer

The prospect of foreclosure is always a daunting one. After all, no struggling worker ever wants to lose their home.

While there are avenues that you can go through to help you fend off having your home foreclosed, one of the biggest questions that most people in this predicament grapple with is whether or not to hire a foreclosure lawyer.

The benefits are obvious, as anyone who avails a lawyer’s services also profits from their expertise. However, some people hesitate to hire a Long Island foreclosure lawyer because of the added expense. They often reason that they are already up to their eyeballs in debt, hence the foreclosure, and that they have little money to spare as a result.

So, what instances would make it necessary for you to hire or at least confer with a Long Island foreclosure lawyer? The following are the top three situations where such is the case:

1.) You are currently serving in the military. One of the upsides of serving in the military is that it affords you special rights in certain areas. Home ownership is one of these areas. Under the Service members Civil Relief Act or the SCRA, anyone on active military service would enjoy an elevated form of protection from home foreclosures.

In some cases, such as when you took out the mortgage before signing up for active duty, it would take a court order or a waiver from the military service personnel in question to see a foreclosure through.

Foreclosure HouseWhile the SCRA certainly provides those in the military with a great deal of advantages when it comes to foreclosures, its provisions can often be quite numerous and confusing to someone who is not well-versed in the law. Thus, having an experienced and qualified Long Island foreclosure lawyer on your side can help you navigate the SCRA’s provisions better so that you can both make sure that whoever is serving the foreclosure will recognize your rights and follow the correct procedure.

2.) You have a very good defense for keeping your home. Hiring a qualified Long Island foreclosure lawyer will help raise your defense even more especially if the foreclosure is judicial in nature (i.e., the lender was the one who filed the suit for foreclosure). However, you can also hire a good foreclosure lawyer in cases where the foreclosure is non-judicial in nature (i.e., where you filed a lawsuit yourself).

While virtually all foreclosure cases are highly nuanced and are thus mostly different in nature, it is unlikely for the average homeowner to successfully mount a strong defense in court without the aid of a lawyer. There are also certain defenses that would absolutely require the aid of a qualified lawyer, and the following are just a few of them:

  • The plaintiff cannot prove that they own your defaulting loan. This can happen in cases where mortgages are bundled off to different security companies. However, proving that the default loan is not under the ownership of the plaintiff would be quite difficult without the assistance of a trained and experienced lawyer.
  • The one servicing your loan made a serious error regarding your account. Since companies that accept payments from borrowers often make grave mistakes (e.g., misapplying funds, levying unreasonable charges, etc.), a foreclosure lawyer who excels at interpreting payment histories can help you determine a sound defense against foreclosure based on any glaring errors.

3.) You need assistance with modifying a bank loan since the institution appears to be stalling. Some banks slacken the loan modification process by stalling, and this is in violation of mortgage servicing rules. A qualified foreclosure lawyer would be able to help you rectify the situation and provide you with a sound defense at the same time.